Hippeastrum (from the Latin Hippeástrum) belongs to the genus of plants from the Amaryllidaceae family, or Amaryllidaceae. This genus includes a little less than a hundred species. All representatives of hippeastrum are perennial bulbous plants and have gained popularity among flower growers due to their relative unpretentiousness and high decorative indicators.
The culture is characterized by pronounced varietal diversity. Currently, there are about two thousand varieties. However, only two hundred varieties and hybrid plant forms were most widely used.
The rounded or conical bulbs of the hippeastrum have in their composition a short and thick stem and closed scales. A funnel-shaped or tubular flower, it is located on a long petiole. Coloring flowers can be very diverse, but most often represented by dark red, bright red, orange, pink or white.
The plant is characterized by a leafless peduncle, the height of which can vary from 35 to 80 cm. If you independently collect seed material, then such seeds have almost one hundred percent germination. If Hippeástrum grows at home, it should be remembered that the bulbs of this beautifully flowering plant are poisonous, so care must be taken when working.
Taking care of hippeastrum at home is not too difficult. Basic care for perennial allows you to get multiple flowering:
- at the stage of active growth, the plant requires a content temperature of 22-25 ° C;
- Do not keep the plant in high humidity;
- a good result gives a rare spraying, which should be completely stopped at the flowering stage;
- hippeastrum photophilous, so a houseplant is best placed near windows facing the south side;
- watering should be increased as the indoor flowering plant grows and develops, preventing waterlogging of the earth coma.
For plentiful multiple flowering, top dressing of a room culture is very important. After the flower arrow reaches a height of 15-17 cm, mineral fertilizers should be applied. Such top dressing is carried out throughout the growing season, with an interval of three to four weeks. The use of potassium and phosphate top dressing promotes the laying of peduncles, as well as approximate the flowering of hippeastrum. It is very important to remember that for fertilizing you can not use nitrogen-containing fertilizers that provoke damage to the house culture with gray rot.
In the late spring or summer season, experienced flower growers recommend taking the hippeastrum outside and placing it in a flower pot in the garden or planting it directly in open ground. Such conditions positively affect the condition of the plant and allow it not only to grow green mass well, but also stimulate the development of the bulb, which favorably affects future flowering. In early autumn, the plant will need to be returned to room conditions.
Hippeastrum: growing and caring (video)
Outdoor care in the garden
In many countries with mild winters, Hippeástrum is grown in open ground, where plants bloom better and bulbs grow in size and form a large number of subsidiaries.
In the last decade of May, after the temperature of the air stabilizes at positive indicators, the hippeastrum bulbs should be planted in the wells prepared in advance and spilled with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. The plot for growing an ornamental plant should be well lit by sunlight.
Subject to the technology of planting and the timing of planting in open ground, flowering occurs even in mid-summer. For a period of heavy and prolonged rains, as well as with the threat of late spring frosts, plants need to be covered with covering material. Autumn digging of bulbs is carried out before the onset of the first significant frost.
Hippeástrum is relatively easy to propagate by seed. Such cultivation can be done using self-collected seed material. To this end, the following recommendations of experienced gardeners should be followed:
- it is easiest to propagate by seed varieties and hybrid forms, forming dark red, bright red and orange flowers;
- it is necessary to moisten the nutritious and loose landing soil disinfected with foundationazole well and abundantly enough;
- select the largest seeds and sow them with a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other;
- sprinkle seeds a little with loose soil and slightly compact with a palm;
- moisturize the crop surface evenly and sufficiently liberally with spray water at room temperature.
For the emergence of mass shoots should maintain a uniform air temperature at 22-23 ° C. With a seedling height of 12-14 cm, plants can be planted in separate flower pots.
Growing Hippeástrum with bulbs is practiced by flower growers more rarely than propagating by children. This is not the easiest and most affordable way to get a beautifully flowering house culture and is characterized by a low coefficient. The breeding technology is as follows:
- a large onion needs to be cleaned of scales, leaves and roots, and then thoroughly rinsed with running water;
- the upper part must be cut by 1/3, and the lower part is divided into several segments;
- slices obtained as a result of trimming should also be divided into slices, which should have two scales and part of the bottom;
- the resulting planting material is placed in a peat sand mixture treated with fungicide and well moistened.
Subject to temperature conditions and optimal moisture indicators, small onions form in about two months.
During dormancy, flower pots with indoor plants should be moved to a cool and dark place. In this state, the bulbs of the plant remain at a temperature of 10-13 ° C. At the very beginning of winter, it is necessary to carry out activities aimed at removing the plant from the dormant period. For this purpose, a houseplant should be taken out into a warm and well-lit room.
Watering at this stage of development is prohibited. The first irrigation event should be carried out after the bulb releases the leaves. Until the peduncle reaches a height of 10-12 cm, irrigation with standing water at room temperature should be moderate and carried out along the edges of the flower pot or by the "in the pan" method. As the room culture grows and develops, watering should be gradually increased, but waterlogging should not be allowed.
How to care after flowering
After flowering, the flower bulb of the hippeastrum enters the phase of active growth. At this stage, the peduncle is laid for flowering next year, so regular and relatively plentiful watering is of particular importance. In the last decade of summer, Hippeástrum is gradually preparing for the transition to a dormant period, so irrigation activities should be completely stopped.
About a month and a half after the hippeastrum has faded, it must be transplanted. Such a procedure should be done so that the root system is further enriched with all the necessary nutrients from a new, full-fledged soil. If it is impossible to transplant, it is recommended to perform soil enrichment. For this purpose, the top soil layer is removed two centimeters high, and then a fresh soil mixture enriched with humus and organic compounds is added.
When growing hippeastrum it is very important to observe certain proportions of the soil mixture. The following composition of planting soil is optimal for the growth and development of indoor flowering culture:
- one piece of turf land;
- two parts of sheet land;
- one part of peat;
- one part of sifted sand;
- a small amount of wood ash.
Hippeastrum transplantation is recommended immediately after flowering. In this case, the faded inflorescence should be removed without fail. For transplanting, a small flower pot is best suited, which will allow the flower bulb to protrude half or a third above the level of planting soil. Flowering in winter involves planting or replanting a Hippeastrum bulb in mid-autumn. After placing the planting material in the soil substrate, the flower pot should be placed in a warm and bright room with a temperature regime of 20-22 ° C. It is necessary to transplant the plant once every two or three years. However, at the beginning of the distillation, it is necessary to add a well-drained soil substrate with a pH of 5-6 units to the flower pot. When the plant has undergone a transplant procedure, relatively plentiful irrigation measures should be carried out.
How to make bloom
Hippeástrum can be made to bloom fully at almost any time. Experienced flower growers resort to the following manipulations to obtain flowering:
- the hippeastrum bulbs are subjected to pre-treatment for 2.5-3 hours with sufficiently hot water, the temperature of which should be 43-45 ° C, which ensures flowering three weeks after planting;
- stop irrigation in the last summer month and move the plant to a dry and dark place for five to six months, after which watering resumes and the plant blooms in about a month and a half.
High efficiency has the pruning of all leaves in the middle of summer and the cessation of watering for a month. When watering is resumed, liquid complex fertilizer is introduced, which allows the plant to bloom around September.
Indoor Hippeástrum has some features that are very important to consider in order to obtain full bloom:
- varieties and hybrid forms with light and white flowers are capable of forming an insignificant amount of valuable seed material;
- in summer, hippeastrum is best transferred to the garden or dug into the ground, which will improve the decorative characteristics of the plant;
- Hippeástrum refers to indoor plants, the flowering dates of which can be quite easily regulated;
- the flowering time of each flower of the hippeastrum does not exceed ten days, regardless of care.
Why other problems do not bloom
Beginner florists very often encounter some difficulties when growing. To understand why the plant does not bloom or indoor culture has lost its former attractiveness, It is recommended that you pay attention to the following factors and features of Hippeastrum in order to understand some growing errors:
- excessive deepening of the bulb during planting or transplanting;
- planting or transplanting a houseplant in an oversized flower pot;
- non-compliance with the mandatory thorough cleaning of the bulb from dried upper scales before planting;
- failure to comply with the mandatory removal of all dried roots;
- failure to comply with the mandatory disinfection of planting material for 20-25 minutes in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate and, as a result, damage to the bulb by rot or other bacterial infection;
- the use of inappropriate soil substrate or soil affected by pathogenic microorganisms.
In addition to the most common growing errors, novice growers often violate the following technology rules, which causes a complete absence of flowering:
- it is impossible to prune all leaves on a freshly flowered plant, since the bulb is deprived of food supply and cannot get the full development necessary for flowering in the next season;
- the scheme of dressing and watering the indoor flower should not be neglected, since such care measures allow the plant to accumulate strength for subsequent flowering;
- it should be remembered that some varieties of hippeastrum are not able to drop leaves and have juicy, bright greens throughout the year, which does not allow the plant to go to the dormant stage and often becomes the reason for the complete absence of flowering;
- the lack of removal of seed bolls formed after flowering is the reason for the waste of a large amount of strength by the plant and the lack of flower arrows in the coming year.
How to propagate hippeastrum (video)
If it is necessary to perform distillation, it is advisable to use the largest bulbs with a large supply of nutritional components, which will allow you to get a beautifully flowering plant by any date and use the indoor flower as an original gift.