In order to fully show their decorative properties, hyacinths, planting and care in the open ground are different from growing them indoors. The choice of planting material must be approached with all responsibility: the diameter of the bulb before planting should be 4 cm, have a formed kidney, 6 to 10 accumulation scales and several surface scales. It is not recommended to opt for large onions: they are more suitable for distillation.
Popular varieties of hyacinth
In modern gardening, three main varieties of hyacinth are cultivated, belonging to the category of oriental:
- Oriental or Dutch hyacinth (H. Orientalis) is currently the most common. The bulb forms a single peduncle, the height of which does not exceed 15-23 cm. Flowers in the amount of 30-35 pieces are located on thick pedicels. Flowering lasts two or three weeks.
- Eastern whitish or Franco-Roman hyacinth (H. orientalis var. Albulus) has a certain similarity with H. Orientalis, but has shorter and weaker peduncles, and each bulb forms two or three flowers.
- Eastern Provence Hyacinth (H. orientalis var. Provansalis) is characterized by the formation of low peduncles and fragrant pink flowers.
Amateur gardeners widely use mouse hyacinth (Muskari) and Litvinova hyacinth (H. Litwinowii) for landscaping sites.
Rules for choosing a place and soil preparation
Flowering depends on the right choice of place, so the area intended for hyacinths should have good lighting and protection from cold winds. Sometimes they try to plant bulbs in open ground under trees (photo 1). In part, this protects against direct rays of the sun and wind, but after flowering, the bulbs suffer from a lack of nutrition.
The cultivation of hyacinths in open ground requires a certain preparation of the soil, it is necessary to proceed to it in advance (better in the last months of summer). They need loose soil, for this, river sand or peat is added to chernozem. Acidic soils are not recommended, it is desirable that the acidity does not exceed 6.5 (if higher, the addition of lime flour is required).
Groundwater located nearby can cause fungus, so good drainage, planting on high beds or creating a slope for a better outflow of moisture is necessary. Dig the soil 40 cm deep and make (1 m²):
- superphosphate - 60 - 80 g;
- wood ash - 200 g;
- limestone - 250 g;
- humus or rotted manure - 10 - 15 kg;
- peat and sand (as the ground).
If hyacinths are planted in spring in sandy soil with a low content of organic and mineral substances, it is necessary to increase the amount of limestone and wood ash by 1.5 times or to add (per 1 m²) 45 g of magnesium sulfate and 90 g of potassium sulfate.
Wells are made with a diameter of 15 - 20 cm, deepening the bottom when planting hyacinths in the soil by 15 cm. Bulbs should be less buried in the soil if the planting material is small, while placing them on a thicker flower bed.
Features of planting and care
Invariably the question arises: when to plant hyacinths? Bulb planting is carried out both in the fall (then in March-April they grow), and in the spring.
In central Russia, bulbs are planted in September-October (if planted earlier, they can grow and die in the winter, if later there will be insufficient time for rooting). At the bottom of the hole, it is recommended to lay a layer (3 - 5 cm) of river sand, slightly push the bulb into it and sprinkle with sand, then with soil (photo 2). This will protect them from decay, improve drainage. To make plants take root better, water the plantings.
With the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to cover plantings using humus, peat, paws of coniferous trees, dry grass and leaves. Shelter is removed in the spring, after thawing the soil (hyacinth sprouts appear very early).
If the bulbs are planted in plastic containers for the winter (photo 3), they can be planted in open ground in the spring. The planting technique does not differ from the autumn one; with a possible cooling, it is recommended to use peat or sawdust as a shelter for plants.
Planting is completed, and hyacinth care in open ground consists in loosening the soil, removing weeds and watering (infrequent but plentiful).
For the purpose of prevention, diseased plants should be removed (2 to 3 times a season is rejected).
As well as planting, top dressing is important in spring - in order to develop normally, plants need good nutrition. The first is carried out as soon as the sprouts appear (30 g of ammonium nitrate is required per 1 m²). The second time you need to make fertilizers during the staining of buds (per 1 m² 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium chloride).
After flowering is over, 40 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride are added per square meter. Top dressing is placed between the rows, sealed 10 cm deep and watered.
Hyacinth autumn planting
How to plant hyacinths, what care should be given to them, we will consider in more detail. If you live in a cold winter, then planting hyacinths in the fall should be carried out in early October. Thus, the bulb will have time to take root before the soil freezes.
Hyacinths are planted in light soil, which should pass water well after rain, and in dry weather it can draw moisture from the depths.
Thus, the flower bulbs get enough moisture, while not staying in waterlogged soil.
It is best to start preparing the area where planting and care of hyacinths will be carried out back in August, this is necessary so that natural soil sedimentation occurs. If you begin to prepare the soil later, then clipping of the newly formed roots at the bulb may occur.
Winter forcing hyacinths
Hyacinth, the cultivation of early distillation is carried out as follows: it is necessary to dig out the bulbs in late June and early July, after which they are dried at high temperature and humidity, this is necessary for the normal planting of flower buds. After 2-3 weeks, the temperature is reduced to 25 degrees, and then the bulbs are stored at 17 degrees.
If the distillation is medium or late, they dig up hyacinths 7-10 days later, warm them for two months at a temperature of about 25 degrees, and then store them at a temperature of 17 degrees. In this case, make sure to cool the bulbs, this is carried out at 9 degrees Celsius for 2 weeks.
After forcing, the bulbs transferred to the soil bloom earlier and already in early spring, you can take photos against the backdrop of these beautiful and pleasantly smelling flowers. Before planting the bulb, it is necessary to separate the baby from it, which will only take away her strength.
Sometimes it is necessary to adjust the flowering to a certain date, for this you can speed up or slow down the development process, this is done by adjusting the lighting and temperature. If the flowering is late, then just raise the temperature to 21 degrees and extend the sunny day to 12-16 hours, and you can get blooming hyacinth by a certain date. It is not necessary to tear it off, you can take a beautiful photo and either give a flower in a pot.
To slow down the development, it is necessary to place the plant with the buds in a dark and cool place, and 2-3 days before the scheduled date, return it to the light and heat again. Half-blossomed flowers can be stored in such conditions for 10-14 days.
Depending on the variety, these flowers can bloom at different times. Blue hyacinths usually bloom first, followed by pink, then white and red flowers. At the next stage, lilac blooms and yellow hyacinths complete the whole process.
This plant has large racemose inflorescences, each of which can have up to 30 flowers. These are very fragrant flowers, the flowering period of which is 2-3 weeks.
Quite often there is a situation when a plant produces short peduncles, this may be for the following reasons:
- the bulbs were at rest for an insufficient period of time;
- during distillation, the temperature regime was not observed, and it was higher than recommended;
- during distillation there was a very bright light;
- the plant is undernourished.
After the plant fades, it needs to be fed with phosphate and potash fertilizers, this will allow the bulb to gain nutrients and normally go to rest.
One bulb can over the years not give children. In order for them to appear, a cruciate incision is necessary at its bottom, after which small onions appear at this place.
Varieties and types of flower culture
Holland is considered to be the "Hyacinth Center", where a large number of species and varieties are represented. There are 3 main types of flowers: eastern hyacinth, Litvinova and Transcaspian. They are taken as the basis for the cultivation of all kinds of varieties, of which there are countless.
Oriental hyacinth is the only variety that can be grown at home. This perennial plant reaches 40 cm in height. Blooms in late spring for 2 weeks.
The form is terry and simple.
By color they are divided into 6 groups: blue, lilac, pink, white, yellow and orange.
By flowering time varieties are divided into early, middle and late. Early varieties of flowers have different names and delight with lush flowering in March-April. For example, since March the Blue Jacket hyacinth blooms abundantly, in the inflorescence of which there can be up to 40 flowers of a lilac-blue hue. In April, the classic Aida variety blooms, its color is saturated ultramarine, and the diameter of the flower is up to 4 cm. Early and include blue and pink (Fondant) flowers with a pleasant aroma.
Unusually fragrant and beautiful hyacinth City of Haarlem (City of Haarlem), which also blooms at the same time with early tulips. An early variety is Yan Bos with dark raspberry flowers. Its bright fragrant inflorescences will delight for 2-3 weeks.
Later all have to wait until the yellow hyacinth and orange blossom.
The garden will also be decorated with Astilba - an undemanding moisture-loving flower that can be planted in dark places. It is good because it blooms from July to autumn with a lush pale purple color. Astilba in combination with other plants is great for landscaping gardens and city parks. It can bloom on any plot of land, but for a long time it will delight with its flowers where there are high groundwater. Drought simply can not stand. Astilba has another important advantage: it is resistant to various diseases and is not afraid of pests.
The varieties Jan Bos (Jan Bos) and Gipsy Queen (Aida) are considered excellent for distillation.
For a long time it will show off in your Gipsy Queen garden, delighting you with light peach flowers.
Unusually beautiful and unpretentious garden black hyacinth, which is simply mesmerizing.
Another species grows in the wild. Loose inflorescences have forest hyacinth - a flower similar to a lily of the valley. These blue, sometimes lilac or pink bulbous flowers are rarely found in gardens, as is a wild variety of plants. The flowers are a bit like bells.
The symbolism of flowers is diverse. So, white hyacinth has long been a symbol of sincere sublime love. And if you were presented with a red flower, then you may be warned that you are playing a dangerous game. Blue is a symbol of calm and prudence, usually it is given by a person who is confident in his feelings of love. Purple hyacinth is symbolic of sadness, its significance - the time has come for the separation of lovers.
All varieties of hyacinths are unique, anyone needs their own care. Due to the lush bloom, beauty of the flowers and a strong refreshing aroma throughout the district, they are all popular with gardeners.
What to do after the hyacinths have faded
When the hyacinth has flowered in your garden, plant it in pots and put it in a cool place at a temperature of about 5 ° C. Here we are talking about adult bulbs.
Bulbs are dug up after the leaves have dried, then you need to sort them. Having chosen the best, treat with a special solution in order to protect against pests and diseases. But before this time-consuming process, the material should be allowed to recover. After the hyacinths have faded, it is necessary to take care of them for 2-3 months, to feed them every 2-3 weeks with fertilizers.
Outdoors, flowers are pleasing to the eye until June. If the leaves remain green, then the nutrition for the plants is sufficient. And hyacinth can bloom again, but the flowers will no longer be so lush.
As soon as the leaves turn yellow, and this usually happens in late June or early July, you need to dig up the bulbs. If this is not done in a timely manner, then it will be difficult to find them - they will go deep into the ground.
If your hyacinths are late, you can dig them out in mid-July. Then you reduce watering and soon stop completely when it is clear that the leaves have already begun to die. Withered leaves are removed.
Dug bulbs are dried in a darkened place. After that, they are stored for storage until October.
How to store planting material
You will not get the lush flowering of your plants without properly organized storage, during which inflorescences form.
Bulb storage lasts 95 days, at this time it is important to observe the temperature regime.
5-7 days are allowed to dry at a temperature of 20 ° C. After sorting and cleaning the onions, they need to be folded in 2 layers in a container, while the small processes do not need to be separated. If the bulbs are few, they can be stored in paper bags.
- For 2 months, the bulbs are kept in a residential environment, where the temperature is 25-26 ° C.
- Storage temperature - 17-18 ° C. High air humidity must be ensured, otherwise the plants may dry out.
If you reduce the first stage by a week, the room temperature (do not forget to ventilate it) should be about 30 ° C.
Another nuance: before planting the bulbs, keep them in a cold room for a week, then they will get better used to winter conditions.
If the bulbs were kicked out at home, then they should be planted in the open ground in the fall before frosts, and then warm well. After wintering, the flowers will bloom in the spring, and when autumn comes, you can again drive them home in pots.
If you do not have the conditions for planting in the garden, then try to prepare the bulbs for the next forcing.
While the onions are stored, they form small children, which should be separated, then planted in pots. Until they become adults, about 5 years will pass, and then they will also bloom. But before that they need to be grown.
If the hyacinth bulb does not have leaves, then all the food went into flowering, you have to wait until the shoots appear.
Hyacinth cannot be called moody if grown as an annual flowering plant. But to get a productive planting material, you have to work hard, ensuring proper care. It’s worth it if you want to see bright and spectacular beauties exuding an exquisite aroma in your garden.
How to plant hyacinth (video)
Some experts are sure that it is necessary to remove the bulbs from the ground in the fall. Others believe that they should be transplanted into flower pots for growing. A transplant is required in autumn to change the location of hyacinths (over time, pests and pathogens of various diseases appear in the soil, therefore it is recommended to plant them in their original place only after 3 years).
Combination with other plants
The best combinations are obtained in the form of:
- blue hyacinths + yellow daffodils;
- blue hyacinths + white tulips;
- yellow hyacinths + red tulips.
Hyacinths are combined with almost all other spring bulbous flowers. The main thing is that they bloom at the same time. Blue and white combinations are the most spectacular.