The share of potatoes grown in household plots has increased significantly in recent years. Potato, which is grown in central Russia, has a more saturated taste and bright aroma, which is due to climatic conditions and soil characteristics of the region. That is why potato varieties for central Russia are widely represented and most in demand among gardeners.
The best varieties of potatoes for central Russia
Planting early varieties of potatoes, including early and mid-early, makes it possible in the climatic conditions of central Russia in the middle of summer to have young potatoes on the table. The best varieties of potatoes with minimal care allow you to grow a high crop of quality tubers. The group of early ripe potatoes has the shortest growing season, which averages about 65-70 days. Early potatoes are unpretentious and, with proper agricultural technology, produce a high yield.
Medium-late potato varieties suitable for cultivation in the Central Federal District of our country, before ripening, are in the soil on average from 95 to 110 days. Potatoes of such varieties are characterized by higher quality and the possibility of long-term storage.
Elite and very productive varieties are in demand by potato growers. One of the most sought after is potato varieties. "Luck", which is very high-yielding, and its landing does not cause difficulties even for beginner gardeners.
Potatoes: variety selection (video)
Dates and rules of landing
Some experienced vegetable growers still use an old omen - the blooming of birch leaves - to determine the timing of planting potatoes. In the Central European part of Russia, this period corresponds to the first and second decades of May.
In the spring, before planting, it is important to carefully sort through the seed material and remove all rotted and diseased tubers. For planting, a seed fraction of 3-7 cm should be selected. It is also allowed to use planting material having an average size or size of a chicken egg.
The cultivation of early vegetable crops is not much different from the agricultural technology of potatoes, which is intended for autumn-winter consumption, and The basic landing rules are as follows:
- Tillage begins in the autumn and includes the removal of vegetable debris, deep digging and fertilizing.
- High-quality soil should provide the most favorable thermal and air regimes; a good result was noted when growing on loamy or sandy loamy soil, but the optimal result is obtained on peat or chernozem soil. In the presence of excessively moistened and compacted soil, the tubers of this vegetable crop are choked and rot.
- On heavy loamy and clay soils, the planting depth is 7-8 cm; in the presence of light, as well as sandy and sandy loamy soils, planting is carried out with a depth of 10-12 cm.
- The plot for planting a vegetable crop is dug up, and then straight grooves of 5-10 cm deep are made along the cord. Potatoes should be planted in rows according to the pattern of 25-30x80 cm. The tops of early varieties are not too thick, so planting material can be planted somewhat denser.
Not only the correct planting, but also the observance of the rules of cultivation depends on obtaining a high and high-quality crop. When cultivating potatoes, you need to take into account some features of this vegetable crop and remember the following rules:
- Plowing of raw soil in the spring contributes to the formation of soil blocks, the destruction of which will require not only time, but also effort. Spring plowing very drains the soil, and if there is not enough rainfall during the emergence phase, there will be a need for pre-emergence irrigation of the plantings. In the future, the inter-irrigation period of planting will be approximately two weeks.
- Potato culture contributes to the removal of a significant amount of nutrients from the soil, therefore it is very important to apply organic and mineral fertilizers in a timely and metered manner that qualitatively replenish fertility indicators; manure is the best organic fertilizer due to the rich composition and presence of almost all mineral elements necessary for normal growth and the development of potato culture.
- The main sign of vegetable ripening is represented by yellowing and dying of potato tops, which is accompanied by coarsening of the peel on the tubers. A properly organized harvesting event ensures timely harvesting. Before laying the tubers for storage, rejection of substandard tubers is carried out, as well as drying and processing from rot and other diseases that can affect all the harvested potatoes.
Favorable conditions for growing potatoes
The middle zone of Russia is a unique geographical territory with original, unlike anything else climatic conditions. The middle strip, or Central European part of Russia, is favorably characterized by a temperate continental climate.
Snowy winters with moderate frosts give way to warm and humid summers, which makes the weather conditions most favorable for growing most vegetable crops, including potatoes. However, it is in the middle lane of our country that you can often find soils that do not have good characteristics and do not contain enough nutrients, which requires careful attention to the choice of variety and compliance with agricultural technology.
How to grow potatoes (video)
The potato varieties already tested by time and new, recently developed by agronomist-breeders, have a very clear zoning. Potatoes for the middle strip are represented by earlier varieties resistant to this climate, which are able to form a full crop in about four months and provide an average yield of 400 to 800 kg / ha.