Appetizing sweet and sour berry cherry, cultivated by gardeners for several centuries, has not lost its popularity today. In the center of Russia and north, the Morozovka or Morozovskaya variety, which is famous for its delicious fruits, is widely known among experts and amateur gardeners.
A bit of history
Cherry "Morozovka" - a variety of Russian selection. It was created taking into account the climatic conditions of central Russia, where the summers are not too hot and long, frosty winters. Winter-hardy variety bred at the Michurinsky Research Institute in the eighties of the twentieth century, named after the name of its creator Tamara Morozova, who worked with stone fruits.
The breeders faced the difficult task of breeding a variety in which high winter hardiness would be combined with the excellent taste of berries, low growth of the tree and its resistance to coccomycosis.
To obtain Morozovskaya cherries, Lyubskaya, a high-yielding and self-fruiting variety with large, tasty berries, but not winter-hardy, and Vladimirskaya, known for its high frost resistance, were crossed. The seeds of the latter during germination were treated with mutagenic 0.025% ethyleneimine. Almost three decades ago, the Morozovskaya variety obtained as a result of this work was used for state testing.
Cherry "Morozovka" srednerosly - the height of the tree is 2.5 meters. Its crown is moderately thick, spherical, the bark is light brown, the egg-shaped kidneys deviate from the gray-green shoots.
The leaves are dark green, narrow, oval and jagged. Snow-white, large flowers have a rounded shape.
Five-gram berries of dark red color are held on a long stalk and are collected in bouquets. They have an unrivaled sweet taste with barely noticeable sourness. Juicy cherries ripen in the middle of summer. Fruits are easy to tear from the tail, and from their juicy dark red pulp, the bone is easily separated.
A quick-growing variety of cherries gives the first berries in 3 years. Its productivity is above average, already from a young tree you can collect more than 200 g of berries.
Advantages and disadvantages
Cherry "Morozovka" combined the best qualities of varieties that were used in its selection, namely:
- high productivity - more than 50 centners per hectare;
- valuable taste: from cherries of this variety you can cook tasty and healthy stewed fruit, juices, jams, preserves;
- excellent fruit composition: this dessert variety is rich in sugar - 10.5%, ascorbic acid - 30 mg per 100 g, organic and folic acids - 1.37%, trace elements, pectins, vitamins;
- high drought tolerance, winter hardiness;
- good transportability due to the low susceptibility of berries to vibration;
- high resistance to fungal diseases, especially coccomycosis.
Due to the good winter hardiness of the tree and its planting in regions with appropriate climatic conditions, flower buds and flowers often suffer, which are afraid of very harsh winters and even return frosts characteristic of the north of the Black Earth region. They freeze and often die. This is the only significant drawback of this variety of cherries.
How to plant a cherry (video)
The best pollinators
"Morozovka" is a non-fertile variety, that is, trees are not fertilized by self-pollination of flowers. Therefore, in the vicinity of this cherry you need to plant self-fertile varieties. This feature of Morozovskaya is more a virtue than a disadvantage. Productivity of a variety practically does not depend on climatic conditions, because pollination of flowers occurs even in the cool spring, when there are no bees - natural pollinators of plants. Cherries Varieties Griot, Michurinskaya, Zhukovskaya, Lebedyanskaya - Ideal pollinators for "Freezing", perfectly replacing these hardworking insects.
For "Morozovka" the choice of a place for landing is very important. Usually one-two-year-old grafted trees are planted. Although they are not too demanding, they prefer fertile soil with adequate drainage, which protects the roots of trees from waterlogging during the rainy season, and ventilation. The place for cherries should be protected from drafts and accessible to sunlight.
Harvested in the fall seedlings are planted in the spring. Soils for them choose non-acidic sandy, sandy loam or loam. Landing is carried out as follows:
- considering that the optimal distance between the trees is 3 meters, they dig holes with a depth of up to half a meter and a width a little more;
- The earth dug up at the same time is mixed with humus, adding a little potash fertilizers, ash and superphosphate to it, and for clay soils no less than a bucket of sand;
- they put a seedling in a hole, fill it up and ram the earth around, forming a roller around 30 cm from the trunk;
- this place is watered with 3 buckets of settled, not cold water;
- mulch the basal circle with humus with sawdust with a layer 3 cm high, which will protect the soil and roots from drying out.
Like any fruit tree, cherries need caring procedures.
- Watering is carried out only if necessary. After flowering, moisture is needed to ensure the juiciness of the emerging berries. It is important that the water does not stagnate from above, but penetrates 45 cm into the soil.
- Top dressing during planting is very important, and after it young trees do not fertilize for 2-3 years. Only after this period every autumn, digging the ground deep under a tree, it is fertilized.
- Trimming should be done regularly. Due to the fact that cherries of the Morozovskaya variety shoots grow quickly, and the crown thickens and many small branches appear, it is cut off in early spring, long before the buds swell. At the same time, all dry and unproductive branches are removed: without this, the bunchy branches quickly die off, and the fruits are smaller. Usually shortened and branches longer than half a meter.
- Protection against pests and rodents. Trunks of young trees are wrapped for the winter with a dense cloth or net, and protecting them from aphids, they are sprayed with trees before flowering Kinmixom and Fufanon.
We also offer you to read an article about columnar cherries.
According to experts and amateur gardeners, "Morozovskaya" cherry:
- regularly and abundantly bears fruit for 12 years or more, successfully surviving frosts, droughts, coccomycosis;
- convenient for harvesting, as it is not too high;
- It does not require special care;
- Needs protection of flower buds from frost, it is not recommended for planting in regions with too harsh winters;
- very tasty in fresh form, the fruits are not damaged during transport;
- perfect for desserts, homemade liquors and liquors, berries do not lose their taste during heat treatment.
How to care for cherries (video)
Morozovka cherries are an excellent variety, and subject to all planting rules and simple care, with timely pruning and protection from rodents, it will delight you with delicious and healthy fruits for a long time. Even an inexperienced gardener can grow such a tree, and jam from this cherry will become a real fragrant culinary masterpiece of any housewife.