Ficuses can be vines, trees, shrubs. More than 800 of their species stand out, each of which has its own characteristic features.
The genus ficus (Ficus) was bred by C. Linnaeus in 1753. The following features are characteristic of it:
- peculiar coloring of leaves;
- dense, rapidly developing green mass;
- ability to purify air.
At this time, there are about 1000 species. The natural habitat is Asia, Australia, Africa and the USA. Scopes of application: decor of a personal plot, a winter garden, rooms and stairs.
The distribution range of plants - California, Mexico - places characterized by a dry and hot climate. The shape of the plants "bottle" is due to the fact that they accumulate moisture in the lower part of the trunk.
Presented ficuses have small roots. In winter, they enter a state of rest. Among them are such varieties as:
- "Palmer" (Ficus palmer iS. Wats). It features glossy leaves with a dark green color. A thickening in the lower part of the trunk appears a few years later. A characteristic feature of the species is slow growth. The species is an epiphyte, capable of living on shrubs and cacti.
- Arrow-shaped (Ficus sagittata). Represents a vine. Often used as a groundcover. Reproduction is by layering or cuttings.
- "Rusty" (Ficus rubiginosa). The species is so named because the leaves have a double color. Above they are green, from below - as if rusty. It can be grown as a bonsai culture.
- "Deltifoliate" (Ficus deltoidea). It grows very slowly, an adult plant does not reach 1 m. The fruits are small, not suitable for eating.
The main habitat for the growth of evergreen ficus is India and countries close to it. Characteristic features of plants are an interesting leaf shape and impressive height.
- "Treble clef" (Ficus lyrata Warb.). A distinctive feature - lyre-shaped leaves 0.5 m long, dark color with light veins.
- "Ali" (Ficus Alii). The plant has grass-shaped leaves. Often the trunks of several ficus "Ali" or "Benedict", planted close to each other, intertwine, and the tree becomes like a palm tree.
- "The Black Prince" (Ficus Black Prince). It has foliage of almost black color, some species have a red vein, in a number of varieties - cream or pink.
- "Banyan" (Ficus benghalensis L.). A distinctive feature of the plant is 20-centimeter velvety leaves. Another characteristic feature of Bengal ficus is the lateral branches, which eventually pass to the roots.
- "Triangular" (Ficus triangularis Warb.). It seems that the leaves of the plant seem to be cut off in the middle. Variegated ficus requires careful maintenance and multiplies with the help of air layers.
Variety: ampelous ficus
Ampel plants in natural conditions can be found in the lower tier of rainforests. A characteristic feature of the species is small foliage. Ampelic ficuses look great in hanging flower pots, but have high demands on soil moisture.
- "Dwarf" (Ficus pumila L.). It has small rounded leaves. Their length does not exceed 3 cm.
- Rooting (Ficus radicans Desf.). It has elongated leaves. Their length reaches 7 cm.
We also recommend that you read the article "Orchids: a variety of colors, shapes and species."
There are many different varieties of ficus. Of the variegated forms, it is worth noting:
- "Baroque" (Ficus Benjamina "Barok). The variety has leaflets of light green color with curled edges. A capricious variety. For example, a plant may drop leaves due to lack of lighting.
- "Anastasia" (Anastasia). The variety is distinguished by a dark green color of leaves with edges with a light stripe. In the central part of the leaf is a light green strip. A variety of "Benjamin" refers to variegated ficus. The flower is growing rapidly.
- "Danielle" (Danielle). Leaves have smooth edges, color - green with shine.
- "De Dumbel" (DeGantel). The variety is distinguished by white-green foliage.
- "Starlight" (Starlight). The plant has green leaves with white spots and a border.
- "Golden King" (Ficus Benjamina "Golden King"). It has green leaves with a white border, in length they grow to 6 cm.
- "Wiandi" (Benjamina "Wiandi"). The variety is very similar to bonsai. The plant has an interesting shape in a winding trunk.
- The Binnendijk (Binnendijkii). Evergreen plant with gray bark. The leaves bend a little along the central vein and resemble bamboo.
- Amstel King It has fairly wide leaves of dark green color. The variety prefers planting in pots.
- "Elastic" (elastica). Great for creating green sculptures. The plant is unpretentious, has dark green oval leaves that are arranged in a spiral.
- "Pumila" (pumila). Evergreen tiny ficus with creeping shoots. It can have two types of leaflets: rounded young and elongated, the surface is smooth, dense or with wrinkles.
- Tineke Variegated ficus with green leaves with pistachio spots. The variety requires careful maintenance.
- "Belize" (Belize). The variety is distinguished by the original three-color color of the leaves, in the central part there is a pink vein. Belize is unpretentious and can grow even without good lighting.
- "Lirata Bambino" (Ficus lyrata). The variety is named "Lirata" because of the shape of the leaves resembling a lyre. In another way, the plant is called "Ficus violin". Color - green with bright veins.
- "Robust Elastic" (Ficus elastica cv. "Robusta"). The variety has wide, almost oval leaves, the color is green, the central vein has a light green or reddish color.
- "Panda" (Ficus Panda). The variety is actively used to create bonsai at home. It is distinguished by small green fruits in the form of balls and leathery leaves. The plant needs a garter.
- "Caric" (Ficus carica). A perennial plant that at home can grow up to 1.2 m. Figs are also called a fig tree or fig tree. The plant belongs to the mulberry family. The variety is dioecious. For winter, ficus gets rid of foliage.
- "Jinseng" (Ficus Ginseng). The plant has a compact crown and a bizarre root system. It is actively used for growing at home.
Species and varietal diversity of ficus is widely represented. Plants of the genus differ in growth rate, leaf size and color. At the moment, you can find many species of ficus from tiny plants to 4-meter trees. In the form, trees with one or several trunks, bushes and standard varieties in the form of a spiral and a scythe stand out.