Fertilizing the soil is one of the most important steps to a full and rich crop of plants that you plant in the country. The nutrients necessary for development can help not only quickly form a healthy plant and provide you with fruits, but also strengthen the culture, say, for its wintering in the garden or in the garden. Therefore, the rationing and proper application of fertilizers should be treated very carefully.
Fertilizing: what you need to know
The introduction of nutrients is useful for plants, but only if the process is worked out correctly, the gardener or gardener knows exactly what is necessary for each individual crop, and correctly understands the norms. If you follow all the rules of such plant care and develop a clear scheme, the foundations of which have existed for a long time in gardening and horticulture, you can grow a beautiful crop, if you do something wrong, it is quite possible to ruin the plants. For these reasons, you must know:
- Classification of substances;
- Calculation of application rates;
- All agrotechnical requirements regarding this issue;
- Dates of application, frequency, seasonality;
- A variety of methods for incorporating substances into the soil.
If each of the points given by us, as well as many of the right advice from experienced summer residents, is learned, fertilizers will only benefit your plants, and will not cause irreparable harm.
So, we have already considered the classification and calculation of application rates in our previous article. In it you will easily find explanations of organic, mineral, as well as complex mixtures. In addition, you will learn the application rate:
- organic fertilizers;
- liquid and complex.
Fertilizing soil in the fall (video)
Dates and ways of making
Any fertilizer must be planted in the soil on time, at a certain dose, and it is imperative to have an idea of the frequency of top dressing, since an overdose or lack of nutrients will lead to almost the same result - poor harvest or even death of plants. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you take the time to the following lines, in which we will open the question.
Preparations should be applied to the soil so that they are located in the activity zone of the plant roots and in the wet layer, and this is about 10-25 cm. If fertilizers are applied without embedding, that is, superficially, or with a small embedding, say, up to 5 cm , then there is a possibility that in the upper soil layer, under the influence of many atmospheric phenomena (wind, elevated temperature, and so on), fertilizers will not give a good effect.
Also, every person involved in land and crop cultivation should know that mineral fertilizers can not only remain at the place of application, but also move in any direction. Nutrients change their location due to the movement of moisture in the soil layers, but this depends not only on moisture and rainfall, but also on the slope of the plot, the nature of the substances themselves and the properties of the soil. Thus, on loams and heavy clay soils, the movement of useful elements occurs poorly and slowly, but on sandy, lighter soils, it is much better and faster. At the same time, there is the possibility of leaching fertilizers from light soils. Therefore, they are fertilized more often, but in small doses. In heavy soils, where nutrients are retained better, fertilizers are applied less often, and their dosage is greater.
Given the properties of fertilizers and the ability to move nutrients in the soil, they can be divided into the following groups:
- Insoluble in water;
- Phosphoric, which dissolve;
- Ammonium Nitrogen;
- Nitric nitrate.
Insoluble products have virtually no movement in the soil and remain in the place of application for a long time, for example, until the next digging or plowing. If we talk about soluble ones, then phosphorus fertilizers have the least mobility, and nitrate fertilizers have the greatest mobility. Therefore, try to devote more time to studying the theory.
If we talk about the timing of the application, then the following stages can be distinguished:
- Presowing. At this point, the preparations are placed in the soil along with digging or cultivating the land with a plow;
- Simultaneously with sowingfor example, backfilling fertilizers into holes, nests or rows;
- Foliar top dressing (spraying). Processing is carried out during the growing season.
Methods of making the following: scatter(without incorporation into the ground or with subsequent incorporation), as well as local (using special machines or tools, when sowing in holes and rows).
The main fertilizer should provide the maximum need of the plant during the entire period of its development, growth and fruiting, therefore, the application of substances in the fall or spring should be correctly calculated. Here you should definitely consider not only the dosage of nutrients that plants and fertilizers need, but also the soil properties, climatic conditions of the region, and plant characteristics.
Fertilizing in alkaline soil (video)
The technology of incorporation of nutrients
There are several ways to fertilize the soil with maximum indicators of correctness and usefulness. But, they are very different from each other, and the main differences are the mechanization of fertilizer application, and, accordingly, the increase in the cost of work and the cost of the future crop:
- Manual application. Yes, it is on their own, with the help of special carts, shovels and spreaders or spreaders of a simple type. The method is suitable for small gardens and land in the country;
- The mechanized method is applied in gardens, fields, large tracts of land where it is no longer possible to cope independently. For this, special equipment is used, which is the best assistant for an entrepreneur, farmer, owner. We will talk about this equipment in our next articles.
And, at the end of our material, we want to repeat the most basic thing - do not fertilize the soil of your beds or fields thoughtlessly, because for this you need to know a lot of subtleties: type of substance, method of application, time and seasonality, quantity of substances, as well as surface or subsoil application, and much, much more. We recommend learning how to increase soil fertility.