A wood splitter, or a special machine that is designed for harvesting firewood, can be represented by several designs. Such installations are divided into professional and household equipment, and also differ in principle of operation.
It is not too difficult to make a convenient home-made wood splitter or cleaver using ready-made drawings and schemes with your own hands, but you need to take into account the features of the structure being manufactured.
Purpose and principle of operation of the splitter
Wood splitters are used not only in private households, but also in industrial enterprises:
- hydraulic unit;
- cone or screw assembly.
The principle of operation of such equipment is influenced by both the type of knife and the method of its operation.
The design of hydraulic equipment is characterized by ease of use and high performance. The main advantage of such mechanisms is smooth operation combined with high efficiency and minimizing the risk of failure. The design is represented by:
- working cylinder;
- with a knife or blade;
- oil tank;
- pumping equipment;
- pressure level distributor;
- gasoline or electric engine.
The principle of operation of hydraulic equipment is to transfer energy through the hydraulic cylinder to the hydraulic rod, after which the stop starts to move. Smooth operation allows the blade to enter the wooden blank without impact, splitting it. With insufficient power, the cylinder stops and the pump idles, which prevents equipment breakdowns.
Conical or screw
It has a screw-screw connection, which allows for greater power and reliability. The standard design is characterized by fixing the sliding stop on a horizontally located frame. The movement is carried out using an articulated stud with an electric motor. For a split, not a knife, but a cone are used.
The advantages include the simplicity of the mechanism, low maintenance and a long service life, but increased demands are placed on engine power. Depending on the type of drive, electric and gasoline splitters are distinguished. Currently released models can be of industrial and domestic type.
Do it yourself screw cleaver
The main problem of creating such a homemade product as a screw splitter is the search for a working cone, which can be purchased in specialized stores or made with your own hands using a metal blank.
- to put a metal blank on an electric motor pulley;
- in the process of free rotation, remove excess metal from the disc;
- cut the left threaded thread onto the blank surface.
The final assembly consists in mounting a screw on a shaft prepared in advance and fixing it with a pin, after which a flange equipped with an asterisk from the motorcycle is put on the other side of the shaft.
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Homemade wood splitter with engine from washing machine
In the process of designing such a mechanism, it is necessary to take into account a design feature that involves the vertical installation of a split log. For a single-phase screw cleaver, a motor from a washing machine with a power of 600 watts is used. and speed stabilizer.
- creating a bed from a metal profile of 2 x 4 cm or 3 x 5 cm and the subsequent division of the area into the working and power parts;
- installation and reliable fixation on the surface of the power side of the podium under an electric motor;
- placement of the control unit in a plastic case on a dielectric plate;
- to make the working part of sheet steel 2.5 mm thick with subsequent installation and fastening of the shaft of the splitting cone;
- welding of reliable power supports to the bed and equipping the shaft with a flywheel of suitable diameter.
There are no fundamental differences in the organization of power supply and the design of the electric motor from the washing machine. The difference may lie in the connection diagram, which is due to the features of the collector and asynchronous mechanisms, as well as units with an electronic control type, which operate exclusively with an individual control module. When using modern motors, there is no need to use a tachogenerator and thermal protection. In this case, switching on and off can be arranged by a conventional household machine.
How to make a cone splitter: drawings and stages of work
The simplest version of a cleaver having a cone snap, represented by the following construction:
- lower jack part;
- upper conical part;
- U-shaped frame.
A split log must be installed in the space between the stem and cone. The split is carried out in the process of translational movement of the working part. A somewhat more complex version of such equipment with an increased level of productivity is a cleaver with an electric motor or gasoline engine.
Equipment should be installed on the shaft of an electric motor or gearbox that rotates slowly at a speed of 80-100 rpm. As a result, the wood is screwed and cracked. The main advantage of such a device is the lack of emphasis and employee safety.
This equipment is not suitable for splitting birch and oak wood, as well as wood species that are characterized by high fiber content. The disadvantages include the complexity of the cone tooling. In this case, you can use a ready-made kit based on:
- shaft 350 x 30 mm;
- belt pulley;
- a pair of rotation bearings in the form of bearings;
- screw 220 x 55 mm
Self-made tooling on a lathe is also allowed.
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Manufacture of a hydraulic device
In this design, the most complex unit is represented by a hydraulic part, consisting of a hydraulic cylinder with a pusher, a pump part, as well as controls. For the manufacture of the frame, a metal corner, channels, an I-beam or a profile pipe is used. During the design process, it is planned to place a metal frame on the wheels. The design of such equipment does not imply the use of electricity, and the wood is split using a hydraulic jack.
- frame manufacturing;
- manufacturing a sustainable platform;
- welding of a vertical guide;
- welding scarves on the back of the guide;
- making a slider from metal corners;
- Strengthening the stop of the stem of the hydraulic jack;
- welding of the sole from a metal strip of 0.6-0.8 cm under the heel of the jack;
- alteration of the handle of the jack for the convenience of work;
- welding the roller to the base of the frame and fixing the rubber band to return the pedal to its original position.
The cutting part of the equipment should be represented by a metal strip 3 cm thick, which must be sharpened with a wedge. To attach the torch to the guide, use three M-12 bolts.
DIY mechanical spring splitter
The mechanical ax is known to many as a spring cleaver. Such a spring unit is quite simple to manufacture and convenient to use. The assembly technology of the spring splitter is as follows:
- concrete upright;
- hang a horizontal beam represented by a hinged upper assembly and a lower shock absorber;
- to fix a short rack and equipment on the free beam end;
- set the working deck.
The main advantage is that there is no need to use an engine, but the mechanical spring splitter has a very low productivity, and the physical efforts of the worker are also required.
Other design options
In order to save and obtain a fully functional unit, a rack and pinion version of the splitter can be made. A home-made device takes into account the specific individual requirements of the consumer.
Features of the manufacture of the design on the rack and pinion gear:
- a gear is mounted on the output shaft of the reduction gear or pulley;
- the movement of the gear causes the mobility of the gear rack;
- the pressed-in rail is fixedly fixed on the bed with a stacked log;
- the gear clutch with the rack through the control handle;
- the working part of the structure is mounted on a solid stationary frame;
- a cleaver is attached to the frame base;
- the gear rack is moved along rails that are fixed to the frame;
- The rail is returned to its original position using the return spring.
The operability of the design can be provided by any electric, gasoline or diesel engine. The advantage of a homemade rack and pinion splitter is the minimum cost of consumables and the flexibility of the parameters. The design should not swing, and when building a mobile device, the wheel system must stably support the entire mass of the device. The speed at which the log is fed into the split must be calculated empirically.
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When making a wood splitter yourself, you need to use only competently drawn drawings and diagrams. Particular attention must be paid to the selection of high-quality and durable consumables. Of great importance is the stability of the design, which will make the work process not only comfortable, but also as safe as possible. It should be noted that home-made models of wood splitters are much cheaper than factory designs, so they are great for home use. However, if chopping wood is required in large volumes and often enough, it is best to purchase a factory wood chopper.