Growing tomato seedlings and sowing pepper for seedlings in February can accelerate the harvest, which is especially important when cultivating vegetables in risky farming zones and in regions that differ in the absence of optimal soil and climatic conditions. Providing seedling material with high-quality top dressing, gardeners have the opportunity to get the required amount of green mass and, accordingly, the highest possible yield of vegetable crops.
Fertilizers for soil for planting
Currently, gardeners and amateur growers use several types of fertilizers that allow you to get The optimal soil substrate for its composition and quality characteristics for growing vegetable seedlings:
- liquid fertilizers;
- granular, tabletted or powdery fertilizers soluble in water;
- loose fertilizers.
The effectiveness of such fertilizers is practically the same, but each gardener can choose the most convenient form.
In its composition and type, fertilizer can be:
- organic and inorganic;
- complex, enriched with salts and organic additives.
As a rule, in the conditions of home gardening, complex fertilizers specially designed for growing peppers and tomatoes are used. A good result is the cultivation of seedlings of solanaceous crops in already prepared soils:
- soil Special No. 1 "Living Earth" or Terra vita, which is a natural slightly acidic soil soil with the addition of vermicompost, intended for growing seedlings of eggplant, tomato and pepper;
- Gumimaks sterilized neutral soil soil enriched with biologically active components;
- neutral soil "Microparnik", intended for growing seedlings of vegetable crops;
- ready-made soil "Tomato", which is a ready-made basis for growing tomato seedlings and bell peppers;
- organic-mineral Bioud soil No. 1 for growing seedlings of nightshade crops.
The use of ordinary garden soil is also allowed, which must be improved with the main nutrient components and subjected to mandatory high-quality disinfection. It should be remembered that a tomato does not like fresh manure, therefore it is strictly forbidden to introduce it when planting. It is best in the spring to fertilize the soil for planting with compost or humus.
How to feed tomatoes (video)
Presowing seed treatment
Equally important is the pre-sowing treatment of seed material with special complexes based on nutrients. Sweet bell pepper and tomatoes belong to the category of productive garden crops that need good nutrition at all stages of development.
Seedling feeding scheme
At different stages of growth and development of tomato and pepper seedlings, the need for garden crops in nutrition varies, so you should adhere to the standard feeding scheme and fertilize young plants with the most complete compounds. For this purpose, you can use both self-prepared and already prepared, optimally balanced nutrient fertilizer complexes:
- the first liquid feeding is carried out after the formation of a pair of true leaves on seedlings using a tablespoon of urea, diluted in 10 liters of room temperature water;
- the second top dressing is performed a week after the first fertilizer is applied and involves the use of a nitrophoska solution prepared at the rate of a tablespoon per liter of warm water;
- after about a couple of weeks, you need to carry out the third top dressing with a solution of nitrophoska, diluted according to the previous instruction;
- a couple of weeks before planting seedlings for constant feeding, fertilizer "Agricole No. 3" or "Effekton-O" is used.
Nutrient formulations intended for use as foliar top dressing are very effective. Such complexes have maximum efficiency and are able to feed the plant in the shortest possible time.
Signs of malnutrition
The main visible signs of malnutrition in the garden crop are:
- the appearance on the plant of sluggish, yellow staining, fast-falling leaves and a slowdown in growth processes can signal an insufficient amount of nitrogen-containing components in the soil;
- the formation of violet staining on the stem part and foliage of young plants indicates phosphorus deficiency;
- the presence of pale leaf plates with pronounced green veins is the result of an insufficient amount of iron;
- signs of zinc starvation can be small and chlorotic, fairly asymmetric leaves on the bushes.
In addition to malnutrition, excessive fertilization can also cause significant damage to garden crops.
Signs of a fertilizer overdose
Excessive, as well as insufficient introduction of nutrient components, very often provokes a violation of the basic biochemical processes in plants, causing a slowdown in the growth and development of garden crops, as well as tissue death. The most pronounced signs of nutrient poisoning often resemble symptoms of deficiency of certain elements. The undesirable consequences of overfeeding the seedlings of tomatoes and sweet peppers are most often the following:
- increased sensitivity to lack of moisture and rapid aging of garden bushes as a result of excessive application of phosphorus-containing fertilizers;
- growth retardation of the plant, elongation of internodes and lightening of leaves, as well as wilting and falling of leaves with excessive introduction of potassium;
- curl of leaves and darkening of leaf blades due to too much magnesium;
- the appearance of inter-vein chlorosis of foliage in the form of pale, necrotic spots with concentric circles filled with water is the result of excess calcium;
- excessive fertilizer with a high content of trace elements such as copper, manganese and boron can greatly reduce the overall yield of both tomatoes and bell pepper.
Pepper: top dressing (video)
It should be remembered that an overdose of nitrate and urea, as well as ammonium sulfate, is very similar in appearance to an overdose of fresh manure, so you need to be very careful and use fertilizers strictly at the dosage indicated by the manufacturers.