Quite often, beginning flower growers encounter problems when the roses have not wintered well, and when the shelter is removed in early spring, it can be observed that the bushes of the decorative culture are covered with strong mold or the stems and leaves of the plant almost completely blackened after wintering. Do not rush to conclusions and throw out the rose bush. As a rule, such plants can be saved or "reanimated", but this should be done as quickly as possible, and most importantly correctly.
How to "wake up" roses in spring
Properly and timely to remove shelter from rose bushes after winter is sometimes quite difficult. Such an event in the spring requires attention and certain knowledge. Shelter from fir spruce branches and protective material should not be removed immediately, but gradually. In the daytime, once the days have become optimally warm, the plants should be ventilatedwithout completely opening and always covering for the night. After a week of airing the roses correctly prepare for temperature changes. To do this, for several hours a day, it is necessary to open the plant to sunlight.
After the winter shelter is completely removed, a thorough inspection of the bushes is required. It is enough to simply determine the safety indices of the aerial part; their staining allows: the stem green, brown or reddish is a sign of a well-wintered plant, and the presence of a blackened part indicates damage by frost. If the trunk is covered with bright red spots, then we can assume the defeat of the plant with cancer. Such areas should be cut to the fork, until light yellow or almost white staining on the cut.
Awakening of rose bushes and natural stimulation of growth processes can be carried out using warm water, as well as special growth stimulants for roses. However, it should be remembered that their use is advisable only after the threat of defeat of the decorative culture by late spring frosts has completely passed.
The main spring problems of the rose
Those flower growers whose roses have been growing on the site for more than a year can determine the reasons for changing the color of the rose after winter quite independently. But for beginner gardeners, it is especially interesting and not always clear why the decorative culture was frozen, watered, or infected with infectious diseases during the winter and early spring. That's why spring care of rose bushes should be aimed at the implementation of basic agricultural practices, as well as at eliminating the problems of an ornamental plant:
- blacken, and then acquire a dark brown color and dry up shoots frozen out under the influence of severe frosts and in the conditions of improper shelter;
- the appearance of cracks can be triggered by a warm late autumn period, when active sap flow during subsequent frosts causes cracking of the bark;
- the movement of juices in the spring in the presence of cracks often contributes to the development of pathogenic microflora, as a result of which the affected areas may turn black;
- if mold is noted on the surface of the stem and shoots, then the reason may be insufficient quality autumn processing of rose bushes or its complete absence.
It is important to remember that frozen areas are subject to mandatory removal. A completely frozen bush can be left until May, as in some cases the plant is well restored independently from a viable root system, and new shoots can grow from the buds of renewal. Too large frost holes are best removed. Microscopic and small cracks in the stem and shoots are recommended to be treated with a 1% solution based on copper sulfate or potassium permanganate, and then cover the treated surface with a layer of garden varnish. If mold is found on the aerial part, then treatment of such areas can be carried out with iron sulfate or copper-soap preparations.
How to care for roses after winter (video)
Mandatory spring care for rose bushes includes the processing of the aerial parts with chemicals, as well as pruning, which must be carried out in accordance with the following rules:
- pruning is done exclusively before buds open on the bush;
- mandatory is the use of a sharp and disinfected secateurs;
- you need to cut off the branches completely, without leaving stumps, to the very base, using the “ring” method;
- pruning is carried out at an angle of 45 degrees, indented from a healthy and well-developed external kidney upwards of about 5-6 mm;
- it is desirable to form bushes from five to six healthy and maximum shoots.
Sanitary pruning also involves the removal of all dry and damaged branches to healthy wood on the cut. It is also necessary to cut out all thickening shoots and branches older than four years. Slices on the largest shoots must necessarily be covered with garden var. After pruning, rose bushes need to be slightly spudded and sprayed:
- before buds open, against rust, gray rot, leaf spot and powdery mildew, the aerial part of the plant should be sprayed with 3% copper sulfate, 4% iron sulfate, 3% Bordeaux mixture on bare trunks;
- after the buds bloom, spraying with 1% fungicides is carried out with the addition of liquid green soap or soap;
- you can spray decorative bushes in the morning or evening hours on sunny days, or on cloudy days, regardless of the time of day;
- spring treatment from a sawfly sawfly, aphid aphids, spider mites and leaf moths is carried out by "Fufanon", "Fitoverm", "Iskra", "Inta-vir", "Actellik", "Actara" or "Karate";
- Do not neglect the timely early spring top dressing of rose bushes, which will serve as additional protection for garden roses from damage by pathogenic microflora;
- As the first spring top dressing, it is recommended to use the introduction of nitrogen mineral fertilizers, including ammonium nitrate, Kemira Vernal, or other compounds with a high nitrogen content.
It is very important to remember that the spring processing of decorative culture must necessarily include the entire specified list of measures, the flowering and health of a garden rose will directly depend on the timeliness and correctness of their implementation.
How to prepare a rose for winter
Beginning flower growers quite often make mistakes when preparing rose bushes for the winter. Such blemishes in the care often cause problems in growing crops in the future. Most often, when preparing rose bushes for winter frosts, the following errors are encountered:
- fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the autumn period activates growth processes and the formation of new shoots, and the ripening of wood before frost does not have time to end, as a result of which the aerial part of the plant freezes and blackens;
- incomplete removal of leaves in the fall, on which all pathogens and plant parasites are perfectly preserved;
- too early or very dense sheltering of rose bushes before the onset of the first frost also contributes to the active growth of shoots and their freezing out in winter or warming up in the spring;
- too much pruned aerial parts.
Infectious burn of roses: causes (video)
It should be noted that it is not difficult to properly prepare rose bushes for winter. It is enough to choose the optimal period and use a very reliable air-dry shelter that can provide plants with stable comfortable temperature indicators of air and good aeration. After competent and timely covering works, the diseases and the loss of rose bushes in the spring will be minimal, and the flowering and health of the decorative culture will be excellent and long.