The oily mushroom (Suillus) belongs to the genus Tubular and the category of edible mushrooms from the Boletaceae family. A characteristic feature of any variety of oils, distinguishing them from other species of flying mushrooms, is the presence of sticky and mucous, easily peeling peel on the hat, as well as a ring left by a private coverlet.
The morphological features of the butterflies allowed some taxonomists to classify the genus Suillus in the family Mokrukhovye or even classify these fungi in a separate family Suillaceae.
The description allows you to find out what real butterflies look like, and how similar or false types of mushrooms differ:
- the presence of a cap, convex or flat in shape, with a smooth adhesive or mucous membrane that is quite easily peeled off the surface of the skin;
- private cover may be present;
- easily detachable, growing or descending along the leg hymenophore, having a yellowish or white color;
- a solid type of leg with a smooth or grainy surface;
- the presence on the leg of the remains of a private bedspread in the form of a clearly distinguishable ring;
- whitish or yellowish flesh, capable of changing color on the cut to blue or red.
Maslyata: characteristic (video)
It is possible to collect oil from the first decade of summer until the onset of a significant autumn cooling. A sufficiently extended collection season makes this type of edible mushroom very popular among mushroom pickers. Oil mushrooms are mycorrhiza with conifers and grow massively in pine and larch forests. Fruit bodies appear in groups.
Common types in our country
In our country, several types of oils grow, which for the most part belong to the category of good edible and conditionally edible mushrooms, but there are also inedible, but non-toxic species.
A significant part of the varieties of oiler grows on sandy soils. The fruiting bodies of white, yellowish species, as well as Bellini and common oysters, are most often found on sandy soils. Preference is given to calcareous substrates larch and granular oily. Grease nipple is very common in park areas.
Benefit and harm
The benefits of such widespread and popular mushrooms in our country as butterfish are confirmed by numerous studies. Oils are characterized by the presence of the following chemical composition:
- water - about 90%;
- proteins - not less than 4%;
- fiber - at the level of 2%;
- fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals - about 2%.
The chemical composition allows the use of mushroom pulp in the following cases:
- the presence of resinous compounds allows the use of mushroom dishes from butter for the treatment and prevention of gout;
- mushroom powder from dried butter is an effective treatment for severe headaches and migraines;
- the active components of the mushroom pulp contribute to the regulation of potency and the return of male strength;
- chitin, which is part of the oil, is able to absorb and remove toxins and harmful, toxic components from the body;
- Lubricants are also known as immunomodulators that increase the body's stamina.
However, the use of oil can cause some harm to the body, which is due to the increased content of chitin and the difficulty of digestion in the presence of problems associated with the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
How to close it for the winter
Oil mushrooms, along with other tubular mushrooms, are widely used not only in fresh form, but also for harvesting for the winter. After processing, fruiting bodies can be fried, used in soups, cold appetizers, hot dishes and for the preparation of toppings, prepared for long-term storage by pickling and salting.
It is very important to properly handle the oily fruit bodies before preparing a variety of mushroom dishes. In order to properly pre-treat the oil, it is necessary to carry out the following measures:
- cut off the root of the fruiting bodies and discard worms;
- remove contamination from the surface of the fruiting bodies, and if necessary remove the peel from the mushroom cap;
- wash the peeled fruit bodies several times in running water;
- soak fruit bodies in water with the addition of citric acid, which will preserve the natural color of the mushrooms.
There are several ways to make a blank for the winter season:
- Prepare the marinade by boiling a liter of water with two tablespoons of salt and the same amount of sugar, as well as other spices and aromatic herbs to taste. Remove from the stove and add a tablespoon of vinegar essence. Boiled mushrooms in clean water, spread in clean and dry jars, adding two cloves of garlic, pour boiling marinade and roll.
- In order to pickle salts, prepared mushrooms should be boiled in water until they sink to the bottom of the pan, after which add 60 g of sugar, 40 g of salt, two to three peas of black pepper, as many cloves and bay leaves for each liter and boil after boiling for about 5-7 minutes. Mushrooms with brine to distribute in sterilized banks and roll up.
How to pickle butter (video)
Canned mushrooms should be stored in a dry and cool place, at a temperature of no more than 8-10 ° C, periodically checking the cans for bombing.