A fairly common mushroom, mustard or bile fungus (Tylopilus felleus) is inedible, due to the too bitter taste of mushroom pulp. This tubular mushroom from the genus Tilopil or Tylopilus grows in coniferous and deciduous forest zones.
Description and characteristic
The bile fungus, which is also called the false white fungus, is found almost everywhere in the forests of the middle zone of our country, therefore you need to know its description:
- the cap is hemispherical, with a diameter of 4-10 cm, but there are also specimens with a cap with a diameter of up to 15 cm;
- as it grows and develops, the shape of the cap changes from hemispherical to rounded-pillow-shaped or rather prostrate;
- the surface is dry, fine-fiber type, with slight pubescence or characteristic velvety;
- with age, the surface of the cap becomes smooth, and in rainy weather it may become slightly sticky;
- as a rule, the hat has a tan or yellowish-brown coloration, but there may also be specimens with a light brownish, gray-ocher, grayish-brown, chestnut-brown or dark brown hat;
- mushroom pulp of white color, often reddening at the cut, odorless, not worm;
- the taste of pulp is characteristic bitter;
- a white or pinkish tubular layer grows to the leg;
- the average height of the legs can vary between 4-13 cm with a thickness of 15-30 mm;
- a leg of a cylindrical or club-shaped shape with an extension below, a fibrous type;
- the surface of the legs is painted in cream-ocher or yellowish shades with a clearly visible mesh pattern of dark staining.
In different regions of our country, mushroom pickers call Tylopilus felleus differently, but the most common names are false boletus, bile mushroom, mustard, false white or bitter. The mushroom grows singly, but small groups are also found. Due to its botanical features, mustard prefers acidic soils in deciduous or coniferous forests, and can also grow on decayed wood. It is most often found in mixed forests, from the middle of summer until the onset of significant autumn cooling.
Mushroom mustard: description (video)
Quite often, the mustard gets into the basket with edible mushrooms due to the external attractiveness and lack of worminess of the legs and hats. Bile fungus has very significant differences from edible varietiesKnowing which you can be completely sure that an inedible variety will not fall into the basket:
- externally, the mustard is very similar to many "noble" mushrooms and looks very much like a porcini mushroom, which, unlike the inedible double, has a thin netted white, rather than a dark pattern on its leg;
- quite often, inexperienced mushroom pickers confuse the bile mushroom with boletus and boletus, but in contrast to them, the flesh of the mustard on the kink turns pink, and there is also a pinkish tint on the underside of the cap.
In addition, you should pay attention to the staining of spore powder, which in the bile fungus has a very characteristic pink color.
Symptoms of Poisoning
Of course, it is simply impossible to get severe poisoning with mustard, due to its unsatisfactory taste, due to which no one dares to prepare a full-fledged dish from this mushroom. Even when mixed with other types of mushrooms, mustard has a very characteristic, unpleasant, bitter taste, which makes it almost impossible to eat.
However, it should be known that poisoning can provoke resinous components contained in the pulp of Tylopilus felleus, which cause severe irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Even a small amount of this substance causes a burning sensation in the oral cavity.
The priority measures that should be performed in case of poisoning with mustard include:
- washing the stomach with salted water until the mushrooms eaten completely;
- the use of activated carbon, Enterosgel, Polysorb, Polyphepan or Smecta.
If first aid is provided correctly and in a timely manner, then such symptoms of poisoning as diarrhea, dizziness, stomach pain are not observed. Also interesting is the fact that resinous substances make it possible to make certain preparations from Tylopilus felleus and use bile mushroom, mustard in folk medicine as a very effective choleretic agent.